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3. Campus Projects to Reform Undergraduate and Graduate STEM Education


AAPA IDEAS Program: Increasing Diversity in Biological Anthropology

National Science Foundation Award #1516939
Susan Antón (NYU), Ripan Malhi (UIUC)
College of Arts & Science (NYU), Department of Anthropology (UIUC)
Dates: January 15, 2016–December 31, 2018 (Estimated)

Increasing Diversity in Evolutionary Anthropological Sciences (IDEAS) is a major new initiative that aims to increase minority participation in the field of physical (biological) anthropology, a discipline that studies the variation and evolution of living humans, non-human primates and their extinct ancestors, and features researchers who provide insights on everything from forensic identification to human ergonomics to understanding climate influences on human systems. Although the discipline would seem to be in an ideal position to attract scientists from a variety of backgrounds, it is remarkably non-diverse, a lost opportunity in light of the scientific gains that are realized by groups working from multiple perspectives. By bringing together multiple perspectives, diverse teams lower their levels of confirmation bias and produce better scientific outcomes. In addition, fields with ethnically diverse researchers are more likely to have individuals who can successfully anticipate, recognize and navigate potentially delicate social and political issues, including those that are commonly encountered by our leading field investigators in countries across the globe. This project will build infrastructure to train and retain minority students currently in physical (biological) anthropology and create outreach programs to raise the discipline's visibility in minority communities. The program further provides for the enhancement of scientific education in K-12 classrooms through the development of teacher training, lesson plans and visiting scientist programs.

A main focus of the IDEAS program is mentoring and outreach activities at the annual American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) meeting, the main interchange of scientific information in the discipline. The IDEAS Workshop will bring minority and first generation college students to the AAPA meeting for a pre-meeting, science and mentoring workshop and networking activities throughout the meeting. IDEAS Faculty, matched with students based on scientific area, will serve as on-site and year-long mentors. Social media and community outreach efforts will aim to foster interest in human and primate biology and evolution. In conjunction with the annual meeting, IDEAS Scholars will participate in AAPA K-12 teacher training workshops and conduct classroom visits at local minority serving schools. IDEAS Scholars will also present science talks at local minority serving colleges. The IDEAS web portal links to social media, including a YouTube channel that will host video interviews with minority scientists (some in Spanish) about their scientific work and career path, and connect minority students with targeted research and training opportunities. The IDEAS team will partner with minority serving societies such as NESCent and SACNAS to bring physical anthropology to minority college communities and will develop promotional materials including a booklet entitled How I Became A Physical Anthropologist (in English and Spanish) to engage school-age children. The Broader Impacts infrastructure will offer a variety of means for partner scientists to build and expand their own Broader Impacts program and develop synergies between Broader Impact programs across the discipline. This infrastructure includes the web portal for connecting their research opportunities with minority students, satellite IDEAS Workshops, topical video production for a YouTube channel, and class lesson plan development for our visiting classroom library. The influence of our programs on the AAPA and discipline will also be monitored via yearly demographic and climate surveys of the membership and will be assessed by a professional evaluator for effectiveness.


CADENS: The Centrality of Advanced Digitally Enabled Science

National Science Foundation Award #1445176
Donna Cox
Art & Design
Dates: October 1, 2014–September 30, 2018 (Estimated)

Computational data science is at a turning point in its history. Never before has there been such a challenge to meet the growing demands of digital computing, to fund infrastructure and attract diverse, trained personnel to the field. The methods and technologies that define this evolving field are central to modern science. In fact, advanced methods of computational and data-enabled discovery have become so pervasive that they are referred to as paradigm shifts in the conduct of science. A goal of this Project is to increase digital science literacy and raise awareness about the Centrality of Advanced Digitally ENabled Science (CADENS) in the discovery process. Digitally enabled scientific investigations often result in a treasure trove of data used for analysis. This project leverages these valuable resources to generate insightful visualizations that provide the core of a series of science education outreach programs targeted to the broad public, educational and professional communities. From the deep well of discoveries generated at the frontiers of advanced digitally enabled scientific investigation, this project will produce and disseminate a body of data visualizations and scalable media products that demonstrate advanced scientific methods. In the process, these outreach programs will give audiences a whole new look at the world around them. The project calls for the production and evaluation of two principal initiatives. The first initiative, HR (high-resolution) Science, centers on the production and distribution of three ultra-high-resolution digital films to be premiered at giant screen full-dome theaters; these programs will be scaled for wide distribution to smaller theaters and include supplemental educator guides. The second initiative, Virtual Universe, includes a series of nine high-definition (HD) documentary programs. Both initiatives will produce and feature data visualizations and the CADENS narratives to support an integrated set of digital media products. The packaged outreach programs will be promoted and made available to millions through established global distribution channels. Expanding access to data visualization is an essential component of the Project. Through a call for participation (CFP), the Project provides new opportunities for researchers to work with the project team and technical staff for the purpose of creating and broadly distributing large-scale data visualizations in various formats and resolutions. The project will feature these compelling, informative visualizations in the outreach programs described above. A Science Advisory Committee will participate in the CFP science selections and advise the Project team. The project calls for an independent Program Evaluation and Assessment Plan (PEAP) to iteratively review visualizations and the outreach programs that will target broad, diverse audiences.

The project launches an expansive outreach effort to increase digital science literacy and to convey forefront scientific research while expanding researchers access to data visualization. The project leverages and integrates disparate visualization efforts to create a new optimized large-scale workflow for high-resolution museum displays and broad public venues. The PEAP evaluations will measure progress toward project goals and will reveal new information about visualization's effectiveness to move a field forward and to develop effective outreach models. The project specifically targets broad audiences in places where they seek high-quality encounters with science: at museums, universities, K-16 schools, and the web. This distribution effort includes creating and widely disseminating the project outreach programs and supplemental educator guides. The project visualizations, program components, HD documentaries, educational and evaluation materials will be promoted, distributed and made freely available for academic, educational and promotional use. Dissemination strategies include proactively distributing to rural portable theaters, 4K television, professional associations, educators, decision-makers, and conferences. To help address the critical challenge of attracting women and underrepresented minorities to STEM fields, the Project will support a Broadening Participation in Visualization workshop and will leverage successful XSEDE/Blue Waters mechanisms to recruit under-represented faculty and students at minority-serving and majority-serving institutions and to disseminate the Project programs and materials among diverse institutions and communities.

Education Component: This project will also train graduate students in NLP and develop materials that can be used to teach middle and high school students about NLP and to inspire them to pursue an education in computer science.


CAREER: Advancement of Microalgal Biotechnology via Quantitative Sustainable Design: An Integrated Research and Education Plan

National Science Foundation Award #1351667
Jeremy Guest
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Project Dates: May 15, 2010–April 30, 2019 (Estimated)

This project will advance the frontier of microalgal biotechnology through the integration of experimentation, modeling, and quantitative sustainable design (QSD), and will leverage this framework to improve the education and retention of a diverse student body in environmental engineering. Research will pursue energy-positive nutrient recovery from wastewater with microalgae, and will focus on overcoming critical knowledge gaps that limit our ability to design mixed community microalgal bioprocesses that might bring this transformation within reach. Objectives of the research are (i) to elucidate the mechanisms governing microalgal bioprocess performance across a landscape of possible designs, and (ii) to establish a path forward for energy positive nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) recovery from wastewater. Experiments with mixed communities of microalgae treating wastewater will be coupled with modeling to advance understanding of how key design parameters influence process performance, microbial community structure and function. These findings will be integrated in a QSD framework (including life cycle assessment, life cycle costing, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses) to identify technology targets and chart a path forward for microalgal wastewater biotechnology development.

Research efforts will be integrated with an education plan designed (i) to increase the intrinsic motivation of minority and female students in introductory- and advanced-level environmental engineering courses through an aspirational resource management framework, and (ii) to increase awareness of and ability to navigate trade-offs among environmental, economic, and performance sustainability criteria for engineered systems. These goals will be achieved by developing two online course modules that will be designed, tested, and deployed at UIUC, Bucknell University, and Parkland College. Modules will be designed through cognitive labs and will include external, independent formative and summative evaluations.

The project is aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of thermal transport in soft and hard matter, and across interfaces separating these materials. This understanding may lead to new pathways for developing small-scale transistors, discovering new cancer therapies, and creating novel energy harvesting thermoelectric materials.

Current approaches to nutrient management at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) use costly, energy-intensive processes that rely on bacteria and chemicals to remove nitrogen and phosphorus. This research will re-envision nutrient management at WWTPs by utilizing native microalgae for energy-positive biological nutrient recovery. In addition to increasing the embodied chemical energy of wastewater more than 2-fold, this approach may also advance the limit of technology by overcoming the critical barrier of dissolved organic nitrogen, a form of N that is often unable to be removed by existing nutrient removal processes but which can be rapidly assimilated by microalgae. The core concept of the research plan is microalgal technology development can be expedited through integration of experimentation, modeling, and QSD. This integrated process will elucidate molecular-scale barriers to systems-scale sustainability and seek to overcome them through process design. This approach will enable the setting of targets for technology performance, and identify critical areas for future research to achieve long-term adoption and sustainability. The research activities will be coupled with educational activities to increase the attraction and retention of underrepresented students by focusing on aspirational outcomes of environmental engineering and developing a new platform for education in sustainable design.


CAREER: Bayesian Models for Lexicalized Grammars

National Science Foundation Award #1053856
Julia Hockenmaier
Computer Science
Project Dates: February 1, 2011– January 31, 2018 (Estimated)

Natural language processing (NLP) is a key technology for the digital age. At the core of most NLP systems is a parser, a program which identifies the grammatical structure of sentences. Parsing is an essential prerequisite for language understanding. But despite significant progress in recent decades, accurate wide-coverage parsing for any genre or language remains an unsolved problem. This project will advance the state of art in NLP technology through the development of more accurate statistical parsing models.

Since language is highly ambiguous, parsers require a statistical model which assigns the highest probability to the correct structure of each sentence. The accuracy of current parsers is limited by the amount of available training data on which their models can be trained, and by the amount of information the models take into account. This project aims to advance parsing by developing novel methods of indirect supervision to overcome the lack of labeled training data, as well as new kinds of models which incorporate information about the prior linguistic context in which sentences appear. It employs Bayesian techniques, which give robust estimates and allow rich parametrization, and applies them to lexicalized grammars, which provide a compact representation of the syntactic properties of a language.

Education Component: This project will also train graduate students in NLP and develop materials that can be used to teach middle and high school students about NLP and to inspire them to pursue an education in computer science.


CAREER: Enhanced Ferroelastic Toughening in Electroceramic Composites through Microstructural Coupling

National Science Foundation Award #1654182
Jessica Krogstad
Materials Science and Engineering
Dates: June 1, 2017–May 31, 2022 (Estimated)

NON-TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION: Specific bonding configurations in ceramic materials enable unique functionalities in a wide range of advanced applications, including superconductive wires in supercomputers, precise gas sensors in automotive exhaust and tilt sensors in consumer electronics. However, these same atomic bonds are also the responsible for the characteristic brittle failure behavior of ceramics. This research is generating new perspectives on fundamental mechanical responses within a class of electrical ceramics necessary to enhance durability without sacrificing electrical performance. By coupling these insights with processing science, this project is accelerating the development of new electroceramic materials and material systems that may drastically expand the existing limits of performance and durability. Through a variety of education and outreach activities, this project also promotes engagement and retention of traditionally underrepresented students. These activities include a high school summer camp for young women interested in material science, integration of industrially relevant, computational tools into undergraduate courses, and expanded mentorship of female graduate students within the college of engineering.

TECHNICAL DETAILS: This project is experimentally establishing a fundamental relationship between otherwise stochastic morphological features and intrinsic toughening mechanism in order to systematically design highly durable, ferroelastic/ferroelectric functional composites. Ferroelastic switching is one of a limited number of intrinsic toughening mechanisms available for advanced ceramics, yet it is not fully utilized due to the largely uncharacterized relationship between localized morphological features, efficient activation of domain nucleation and motion, and resultant improvements in toughness. By bridging this gap using in situ microscopy and targeted micromechanical probes, this research is providing the foundation for accelerated physics-based design of more durable ceramic composite systems. Finally, the state of the art characterization and processing methods used in this project in combination with a data-driven integrated computational materials engineering perspective is enhancing the overall development of graduate students, preparing them for an ever more digitally-reliant materials science industry.


CAREER: Nanostructured Soft Substrates for Responsive Bioactive Coatings

National Science Foundation Award #1554435
Cecilia Leal
Materials Science and Engineering
Project Dates: February 1, 2016–January 31, 2021 (Estimated)

NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY: This CAREER award by the Biomaterials program in the Division of Materials Research to University of Illinois at Urbana-Champion is in support of studies to elucidate key fundamental properties of biocompatible lipid materials. This research would enable the design of coating materials for nanostructures, drugs and nucleic acids. Potential outcome from this research could be the ability to design smart materials that are able to interface with the human body to heal wounds, repair bones, as well as deliver drugs, vaccines, antibiotics, etc., by remotely programmable delivery system with the desired drug load, at the correct location and predetermined time point. Such capabilities could obviate unnecessary surgeries, periodic hospital visits for intravenous drug administration, and reduction in the undesirable side effects. This award will integrate the research activities into training and outreach activities, and include active recruitment of underrepresented minority students in STEM by developing an active-learning based middle-school summer camp for girls in materials science. Additionally, this award included outreach activities with three different populations, namely middle school and incoming graduate students, and inmates at a local prison. The investigator will share the research findings in a workshop about the medical challenges in engineering areas that are being developed as part of the Education Justice Project, which offers educational opportunities to incarcerated individuals. This effort has proven to be of high impact in reducing the rates of inmate misconduct. In addition, this program offers an instructional program combined with family support groups that could result in better educational accomplishments of inmates' children.

TECHNICAL SUMMARY: This CAREER award supports a research in the development of studies to elucidate key fundamental properties of novel materials that are biocompatible and prepared from non-bilayer lipids layers on different substrates. With this award, the investigator will study molecular-scale processes leading to highly structured surface deposited non-bilayer lipid thin films for the delivery of drugs and nucleic acids. The main goals of the project are: a) to understand polymorphism of lipid and associated species on surfaces; b) to fine tune film nanostructures with underlying surfaces and environmental cues; and c) to integrate lipid-film complexes on the surface. This investigator will vary surface chemistry, substrate geometry and environment to establish the conditions that decide the structure and orientation of lipid-drug and lipid-nucleic acid complexes deposited onto surfaces. As part of this research, the investigator will study molecular-scale processes leading to highly structured surface deposited non-bilayer lipid thin films for the delivery of drugs and nucleic acids. In this work, the researcher will combine different characterization methods such as Small Angle X-ray Diffraction with cell culture assays to unveil a fundamental understanding of the self-assembly of lipid-based thin-films onto a surface. The scientific broader impacts of this research are possible design of device-coating materials with predictable nanostructures and drug/gene elution profiles. This award will integrate the scientific outcomes into outreach and education, targeting three different populations, namely middle school and incoming graduate students, and inmates at a local prison.


CAREER: Spatiotemporal Avalanche Kinetics in Size-Dependent Crystal Plasticity

National Science Foundation Award #1654065
Christoph Robert Eduard Maass
Materials Science and Engineering
Project Dates: June 1, 2017–May 31, 2022 (Estimated)

Non-Technical Abstract: When a metallic component is stressed to the extent that it plastically deforms, many defects operate to allow the permanent shape change. In crystalline metals, which means practically all technical alloys, these defects are called dislocations. Acting cooperatively, many dislocations can begin to move at the same time. This process can lead to abrupt plastic instabilities that deteriorate the structural stability of components and eventually trigger failure. One main problem with such collective, avalanche-like, processes is that they occur spontaneously, which means that they are hard to predict. In addition, these dislocation avalanches are confined to the nanometer scale and proceed extremely fast. As a result, very little is known about how they proceed in space and time. In this research effort, the PI and his students will unravel the precise dynamics of dislocation avalanches. We will not only track their spatiotemporal dynamics, but we will also define how they respond to changes in temperature. This will be done by unique micro-scale and temperature-dependent deformation experiments with extremely fast response dynamics. General statistical and physical models that are predicted to describe the avalanche behavior will be tested with the experimental data, and novel deformation models will be proposed. A successful completion of our research will lead to a better control of structural stability, and drive the development of mathematical models that can predict avalanches and therefore failure. Since avalanches occur in many other systems, such as earthquakes, disordered materials, or magnetism, the significance of the here-obtained results will extend well beyond plasticity of metals. In order to increase the nation's diversity and retention of underrepresented groups in STEM education, the PI will develop an educational program in the area of solid materials for the middle-school age-bracket, which he will present in outreach activities at schools, and also pioneer a new middle-school camp for girls. These interventions will be integrated with active learning techniques that the PI is currently implementing in undergraduate education.

Technical Abstract: This proposal will tackle a notoriously difficult problem that controls the structural integrity of metallic materials: How do local structural instabilities proceed in the space-time-temperature domain? These instabilities are caused by collective defect dynamics, called dislocation avalanches in crystals. The challenge lies in the spatial confinement and the short time scales of such processes. Using nanoseconds time resolution in combination with sub-nanometer displacement resolution during a temperature-dependent micro-scale straining experiment, the objective will be to trace dislocation avalanches in real time. This will be achieved by extending a commercially available nanoindenter with MHz data sampling capabilities, and to integrate the system into a cryostat. Four main thrusts compose the core of this research program: 1) non-linear modeling of the device-sample dynamics, 2) experimental validation of theoretically predicted scaling laws, 3) unraveling the transition from intermittent to smooth plastic flow, and 4) determining thermal activation parameters for dislocation avalanche dynamics. If successful, the hereby generated large experimental data set will be a unique basis for the development of predictive materials modeling, and may lead to a better control of the depinning transition and thus the strength of structural materials. Key of this project will be a unified experimental approach with highly time-resolved and temperature-dependent small-scale deformation experiments that can assess the velocity-profiles of dislocation avalanches, thereby scrutinizing recently proposed theories for avalanches near the depinning transition. The impact of these efforts is a first real-time assessment of a dynamic phase in crystal plasticity, which will improve our physical understanding of a process that ultimately dictates the mechanical stability of metals, or forming of small metallic components. The results will be relevant for bulk metals in general, and provide numerous important parameters for materials modeling and systems that undergo similar dynamic phase transitions, ranging from crystals to granular materials. Unravelling avalanche characteristics will furthermore provide a coarse-grained view on dislocation plasticity that can bridge between dislocation dynamics and constitutive crystal plasticity modeling, which may directly lead to more efficient multi-scale modeling frameworks.


CAREER: qBio+cBio=sBio; Identifying the role of cross-family signaling in angiogenesis

National Science Foundation Award #1653925
Princess U II Imoukhuede
Bioengineering
Project Dates: April 1, 2017–March 31, 2022 (Estimated)

A critical challenge in biomedical engineering is a need to control the process of blood vessel formation, also known as "angiogenesis." Controlling angiogenesis is important, because blood vessels supply the nutrients necessary for our organs and tissues to function properly. Efforts to control angiogenesis in cancer focus on starving and possibly killing the tumor by cutting off tumor blood supply, typically by looking at a single protein. This project proposes to overcome current limitations in this type of cancer therapy and meet the general challenge of controlling angiogenesis by tackling a more difficult, "big-data"-like problem: understanding how combinations of proteins control angiogenesis. This project will tackle the problem by: 1) experimentally determining important protein characteristics; 2) determining mathematical equations that describe the behaviors of these proteins; and 3) developing computer simulations that include both the experimental data and the mathematical equations to determine how the proteins work to cause angiogenesis. The education and outreach portion of this project will introduce sophomores to research and computer modeling in an introductory-level course in order to excite them about STEM. The activities will include mentoring of underrepresented students to increase their interest and persistence within STEM majors.

The directed control of angiogenesis remains a pressing need due to its involvement in the pathology of over 70 diseases. A promising approach for angiogenesis control involves going beyond the traditional emphasis on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) axis towards a new focus: cross-axis signaling (protein binding across families). The objective in this project is to pioneer a shift towards understanding cross-axis angiogenic signaling via three aims grounded in quantitative biology (qBio), omputational biology (cBio), and integrative systems biology (sBio). Quantitative biology will be used to measure cross-axis binding and concentrations or relevant protein ligands, including through the development of new quantitative tools for multiplex measurement of receptor concentrations. Computational biology will be used to construct validated cross-axis models that will predict how adapter activation contributes to angiogenic hallmarks, cell proliferation, and migration. Systems biology will be used to predict the role of cross-axis signaling in angiogenesis by applying the qBio and cBio tools to angiogenesis in vitro. Ligand, receptor, and adapter concentrations will be measured, and the magnitude of cross-axis signaling will be predicted. These predictions will be validated by demonstrating control of vessel formation (inhibition and stimulation) in vitro. This research will be integrated with teaching by creating undergraduate research pathways via a core course. This will introduce systems biology to sophomore students who will develop computational models of ligand-receptor signaling in angiogenesis. Students will also be offered opportunities to continue their work within the PI's research laboratory. Additional mentoring will be provided to underrepresented students to support their persistence within STEM fields.


CAREER: Tabletop Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Femtosecond Spin Crossover Dynamics

National Science Foundation Award #1555245
Joshua Vura-Weis
Chemistry
Project Dates: March 1, 2016–February 28, 2021 (Estimated)

With this award, the Chemical Structure, Dynamics and Mechanisms (CSDM-A) Program of the Division of Chemistry is funding Professor Joshua Vura-Weis at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) to investigate the mechanism of light-induced processes where the electronic spin state changes. After certain iron and iron-cobalt complexes absorb visible light, they undergo a rapid rearrangement (spin flip) and become trapped in a long-lived state that may be useful for practical applications. The experimental technique used in this project is tabletop extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy. Two workshops designed to foster deep and sustained undergraduate engagement in spectroscopy research are established in association with the International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (ISMS) at UIUC. A weeklong "Spectroscopy in the Snow" intensive winter course gives sophomores the foundational knowledge required for physical chemistry research and allows them to begin high-level work in their home institutions one year ahead of schedule. A two-day ISMS pre-conference for undergraduates, analogous to the Gordon Research Seminar series for graduate students, builds a community of young researchers and raises the level of undergraduate presentations at the main conference. The new spectroscopic methods demonstrated in this proposal are applicable for a wide range of problems in physical and inorganic chemistry, from photocatalysis to solar cell design.

Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy at femtosecond resolution is used to resolve the details of the spin relaxation process in a series of transition metal complexes. The Vura-Weis group further extends its capabilities to measure vibrational dynamics during the spin crossover. The interplay between electron transfer and spin dynamics is a key factor in the photophysics and reactivity of complexes containing open-shell transition metals. The Vura-Weis group uses the spin-state specificity and femtosecond time resolution of XUV transient absorption to measure the relaxation cascade of iron polypyridyl complexes, specifically focusing on the potential role of a short-lived metal-centered triplet state. The interplay between electron transfer and spin crossover in Prussian Blues is being measured in a series of discrete cyano-bridged iron-cobalt systems. In this case, the element specificity of XUV absorption allows the dynamics of each metal to be independently probed. The particular molecular motions that gate the electron dynamics are identified by element-specific XUV impulsive coherent vibrational spectroscopy. To make research in physical chemistry more accessible to undergraduates, a winter school on spectroscopy takes place at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, in connection with the International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (ISMS). In addition, a two-day undergraduate meeting preceding this conference develops a supportive community of young researchers.


CAREER: Transforming Electronic Devices Using Two-dimensional Materials and Ferroelectric Metal Oxides

National Science Foundation Award #1653241
Wenjuan Zhu
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Project Dates: February 1, 2017–January 31, 2022 (Estimated)

Nontechnical description: Next generation information technology is driving the quest for energy efficient electronic devices to process unprecedented amounts of data in real time and in an energy- and cost-efficient manner. In this program, the principle investigator (PI) is planning to create and evaluate novel energy efficient electronic devices based on a new hybrid material platform consisting of two-dimensional (2D) materials (mono-/di-chalcogenides and graphene) and ferroelectric metal oxides (doped hafnium and zirconium oxides). The ferroelectric metal oxides provide programmable and non-volatile doping in 2D materials, while the atomically thin bodies in 2D materials enable strong electrostatic control over the channel by the ferroelectric metal oxides. Most previous research on 2D/ferroelectric hybrid materials has focused on traditional perovskite ferroelectric materials. This proposed work will undertake the first systematic study of 2D materials on newly discovered ferroelectric hafnium and zirconium oxides, which have the advantages of excellent scalability, high coercive field, and full compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The PI's team will investigate the synthesis of this new hybrid material platform and create ultra-low power logic, memory, and analog devices based on these materials. The low power logic and memory devices based on these materials will be essential for mobile devices, medical implantable devices, wearable electronics, and large data centers. Analog classifiers based on these materials will enable high speed and low power signal processing and image recognition systems. 3D integration of these low power 2D ferroelectric devices with high speed silicon circuits will result in next-generation highly parallel and ultra-low power systems to support "Big Data" applications such as the Internet of Things and social media. The PI will integrate research and teaching by creating a new graduate/undergraduate course on 2D materials to train the next generation workforce in nanoelectronics. The PI will establish several outreach activities including a new "Little Einstein" science education program for elementary students to cultivate young minds at an early age to respect and embrace a career in science and technology. The PI will also establish a "Girls Go Tech" program for middle school girls to promote enrollment of female students in science and engineering programs.

Technical description: The objective of the proposed research is to establish the foundation for a new research direction: nanoelectronics based on 2D/ferroelectric metal oxides hybrid material platform. The PI's team will synthesize and characterize 2D/ferroelectric metal oxide stacks, seeking fundamental understanding of the ferroelectric phase transition in metal oxides with 2D materials as substrate/capping layers. The team will also utilize these materials to create energy efficient logic, memory, and analog devices. Specifically, the team will create and evaluate novel 2D ferroelectric tunneling field effect transistors (2D Fe-TFETs) to serve as ultra-low power logic; will investigate 2D ferroelectric hafnium oxide transistors (2D FHOT) to implement highly energy efficient, scalable, and durable ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM); will create embedded-gate graphene ferroelectric transistors (EGGFTs) to realize highly energy-efficient, extremely compact, and non-volatile analog classifiers. These devices will then be stacked layer-by-layer to realize 3D monolithic integration. This research will elucidate the device physics and evaluate the potential of these devices for future semiconductor technology. The resulting 3D integrated system will provide the hardware foundation for new circuit and architecture designs. This research is potentially transformative as it may unlock new lines of research and development in energy efficient devices, circuits, and architectures with a broad range of emerging applications from wearable electronics and implantable medical devices to data centers.


Collaborative Research: Dimensions: Experimental adaptive radiation-genomics of diversification in bird lice

National Science Foundation Award #1342604
Kevin Johnson
Illinois Natural History Survey
Project Dates: November 1, 2013 – October 31, 2018 (Estimated)

Adaptive radiation occurs when one species of organism diversifies into several species that occupy distinct ecological niches. The process is a common generator of biodiversity, yet the genetic changes underlying it have not been documented. Parasites, one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth, are thought to adaptively radiate as they switch to new species of hosts. This process will be studied using birds and feather lice, which are host specific parasites that spend all of their time on the host's body. Lice will be transferred in controlled experiments between normal and novel species of captive hosts. Evolutionary changes in genomes of the lice will be documented as they undergo adaptive radiation.

The results of this work may have implications for basic research, as well as human and animal health. Genomic data will be deposited in public databases. One postdoctoral associate, two Ph.D. students, and several undergraduate students will be trained. Two educational modules demonstrating adaptation by natural selection will be developed for K-12 students: "cryptic critters" (K-6) and "hunker down" (7-12). These modules are cost effective and easy to implement. Their effectiveness will be assessed with assistance from the University of Utah Center for Science and Math Education.


Collaborative Research: REU Site: Phenotypic plasticity research experience for community college students

National Science Foundation Award #1559908
Nathan Schroeder
Crop Sciences
Project Dates: September 15, 2016–August 19, 2019 (Estimated)

This REU Site award to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign located in Urbana, IL, and Parkland College, located in Champaign, IL, will support the training of 10 students for 10 weeks during the summers of 2017-2019. Participants will conduct research in the area of phenotypic plasticity, the phenomenon of a single genotype producing multiple phenotypes depending on environment. The program will begin with a two-week "boot-camp" on topics ranging from specific laboratory methods to discussions of research ethics. Students will then join a research immersion program within a research lab at the University of Illinois. Possible research projects include the interaction between genotype and ozone pollution on maize growth, the effect of environmental stress on neuroanatomy, and the interactions of genes and environment on fish behavior. Students will present their research at an undergraduate research symposium on the University of Illinois campus as well as their community college. Applications will be accepted beginning in December preceding the summer program and final decisions on admittance made by March 31st.

It is anticipated that a total of 30 students over three years will be trained in the program. This REU Site will focus on students from community colleges, which typically have very few research opportunities. Community colleges often have a large percentage of underrepresented groups and this REU Site will encourage applications from these groups. Students will learn how research is conducted, and many will present the results of their work at scientific conferences.

A common web-based assessment tool used by all REU programs funded by the Division of Biological Infrastructure (Directorate for Biological Sciences) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the training program. Students will be tracked after the program in order to determine their career paths. Students will be asked to respond to an automatic email sent via the NSF reporting system. More information about the program is available by visiting http://dev2.igb.illinois.edu/reu-plasticity/, or by contacting the PI (Dr. Nathan Schroeder at nes@illinois.edu) or the co-PI (Dr. C. Britt Carlson at ccarlson@parkland.edu).


Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IML-CZO)

National Science Foundation Award #1331906
Praveen Kumar, Alison Anders, Praveen Kumar, Timothy Filley, Thanos Papanicolaou
Civil and Environmental Engineering Geology
Project Dates: December 1, 2013–November 30, 2018 (Estimated)

Intensively managed landscapes, regions of significant land use change, serve as a cradle for economic prosperity. However, the intensity of change is responsible for unintended deterioration of our land and water environments. By understanding present day dynamics in the context of long-term co-evolution of the landscape, soil and biota, IML-CZO aims to support the assessment of short- and long-term resilience of the crucial ecological, hydrological and climatic services. These include freshwater quality and quantity, provision for food, fiber and (bio)fuel, nutrient transformations, and terrestrial carbon storage. The goals of this project are to quantify the fluxes and transformations, as well as interactions, thresholds, and dynamic feedbacks of water, nutrients, and sediment in IMLs, and to characterize how rapid land use changes have altered the vulnerability and resilience of these systems. An observational network of two sites in Illinois (3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin) and Iowa (270-km2 Clear Creek Watershed), and a partner site in Minnesota (44,000-km2 Minnesota River Basin), which together capture a range of geological diversity of the low relief glaciated and tile-drained landscape in the Midwest, will drive the scientific and technological advances. The guiding hypothesis for the scientific effort is that through human modification, the critical zone of IMLs has passed a tipping point (or threshold) and has changed from being a transformer of material flux, with high nutrient, water, and sediment storage, to being a transporter. This change threatens the resilience of the landscape to accommodate future impacts associated with ongoing human activity, including climate change and bioenergy crop production. Further, it increases the vulnerability of IMLs by compromising the sustainability of key critical-zone services on which ecological systems and human populations depend. Understanding and quantifying shifts in the response of the critical zone to human development remains a challenge, and current assessments are at best qualitative. IML-CZO research will identify threats to resilience of the critical zone, and will also inform management strategies aimed at reducing the vulnerability of the system to human activities that threaten sustainability. We will develop methods and knowledgebase that are broadly applicable across the Midwest and similar low-gradient landscapes worldwide.

The project will provide leadership in developing the next generation of work force and informing sustainable management strategies. The IML-CZO will be a launch pad for several new educational and outreach initiatives, and it will be an integral resource to connect and partner with existing organizations. It will draw on and add to several resources and programs available throughout the region. The CZO will provide a testbed for student-led sensing and data collection initiatives, and is expected to stimulate new research ideas and further advance the sensors and measurements curriculum. The CZO will also work to bring together collaborations with National Great Rivers Research and Education Center, IOWATER, Minnesota and Illinois RiverWatch Volunteer programs to enlist "citizen scientist" (age 10 - 70) in the work of the CZO. IML-CZO will also serve as a training ground for several undergraduate and graduate students, and post-doctoral research associates by engaging them in interdisciplinary research.


CyberTraining: CIP: NCSA Internship Program for CI Professionals

National Science Foundation Award #1730519
Daniel Lapine, Volodymyr Kindratenko
National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Project Dates: August 1, 2017–July 31, 2020 (Estimated)

This project is NCSA's pilot internship program for cyberinfrastructure (CI) professionals, designed to address the shortage of a workforce with the specialized skills needed to support advanced CI operations. The program both provides internship opportunities for individuals who want to gain first-hand experience in the CI operations of a supercomputing center, and develops and refines instructional materials to serve as templates that are openly distributed for use by other centers and institutions to train CI professionals for scalability. Program interns work directly with a group of engineers in one of the areas of CI focus to gain hands-on experience in the deployment and operation of cutting-edge high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructure at a leading HPC center. Graduates of this internship program will enter a workforce that will develop, deploy, manage and support advanced CI at other universities, centers, and industry to meet the needs of the national computational science research community. By doing so, the project serves the national interest by promoting the progress of science and advancing the national prosperity and welfare.

Managing modern CI that supports scientific research is a challenging task which requires deep and broad knowledge and experience to plan, acquire, deploy, and operate complex HPC resources. This project plans to help prepare the next generation of system engineers and administrators knowledgeable about computer architecture, storage technology, interconnect, operating system, cluster software stack, user management, job management, resources monitoring, networking, and security, as well as best practices in the field. The goals for this internship program include expanding the talent pool by attracting and supporting professional development of minority and underrepresented groups in the field of CI, providing motivated individuals the opportunity to obtain real-world CI operational experience through a short, full-time program in an area already supported by NSF for its programmatic needs, and developing training materials and identifying best practices that will be contributed back to the community to be used stand-alone or in combination with an internship program to train next-generation CI professionals.


Engineering Research Center for Power Optimization for Electro-Thermal Systems (POETS)

National Science Foundation Award #1449548
Andrew Alleyne
Mechanical Science and Engineering
Project Dates: August 1, 2015–July 31, 2020 (Estimated)

Nearly all modern electronic systems are hitting a power density wall where further improvements in power density pose significant challenges. The NSF Engineering Research Center for Power Optimization for Electro-Thermal Systems (POETS), aims to enhance or increase the electric power density available in tightly constrained mobile environments by changing the design. The management of high-density electrical and thermal power flows is a safety-critical societal need as recent electrical vehicles and aircraft battery fires illustrate. Engineering education conducted in silos limits systems-level approaches to design and operation. POETS will create the human capital that is explicitly trained to think, communicate, and innovate across the boundaries of technical disciplines. The Engineering Research Center (ERC) will institute curricular reform to train across disciplines using a systems perspective. It will develop pedagogical tools that allow greater stems-level understanding and disseminate these throughout the undergraduate curriculum. POETS will target undergraduate curriculum modifications aimed at early retention and couple it with undergraduate research and K-12 teacher activities. POETS' research will directly benefit its industry stakeholders comprised of power electronics Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) and Small to Medium sized businesses in the OEM supply chain. An Industry/Practitioner Advisory Board will help direct efforts towards ready recipients of POETS research developments. POETS will harness the outputs of the ecosystem and drive research across the "valley of death" into commercialization.

POETS uses system level analysis tools to identify barriers to increased power density. Design tools will be used to create optimal system-level and subsystem-level designs. Novel algorithm tools will address the multi-physics nature of the integrated electro-thermal problem via structural optimization. Once barriers are identified, POETS will cultivate enabling technologies to overcome them. The operation of these systems necessitates development of heterogeneous decision tools that exploit multiple time scale hierarchies and are not suitable for real-time use. Implementation of these management approaches requires new 3D power electronics architectures that surpass current 2D designs. The thermal management will be tightly coupled with new 3D electronic systems designs using topology optimization for power electronics, storage, etc. The new designs will tightly interweave elements such as solid state thermal switches and modular multi-length scale elements; i.e. spreaders, storage units, phase change and mass flow system interacting with convection units. Fundamental research advances will support development of the 3D component technologies. New materials systems will be developed by manipulating nanostructures to provide tunable directionality for in plane and out-of-plane thermal power flows. These will be coupled with micro- and nano-scale thermal routing based on new conduction/convection systems. Buffers made from phase change material will be integrated into these systems to augment classes of autonomic materials with directed power flow actuation. Novel tested systems will integrate the system knowledge enabling technologies and fundamental breakthrough into modular demonstrations.


EXPANDING THE IMPACT OF THE SUMMER INTERNSHIP FOR NATIVE AMERICANS IN GENOMICS (SING) SHORT COURSE

National Institutes of Health Award #5R25HG007158-05
Ripan S Malhi
Department of Anthropology
Dates: March 27, 2013–August 31, 2019 (Estimated)

We propose to continue and expand the impact of a six-day summer short course on genomics for Native American college and university students with a background and interest in genomics. The short-term goals of the program, entitled the Summer Internship for Native Americans in Genomics (sing), are to train Native American students in next-generation genomic and bioinformatics analyses and to build capacity for scientific research of Native American communities. Additionally, the sing program builds a support network for indigenous scholars in the STEM fields. We expand the impact of the sing short course by having additional venues of the sing short course at universities with established research programs involving indigenous peoples and genomics in different geographic regions of the United States. Parts of the sing short course will be tailored to specific issues of indigenous peoples of the geographic region and will take advantage of the expertise of faculty of the host institutions. Specifically, we propose to convene the sing short course at the University of Arizona in 2017 with a specialized module on cancer genomics and precision health, the University of Washington in 2018 with a specialized module in pharmacogenomics and then back at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign with a specialized module in transcriptomics and epigenetics. The expertise of the SING faculty and resources available at the host universities provide enriching environments to educate Native American students and tackle important problems of genomics with indigenous communities. Our unique short course with significant hands-on training in molecular biology, bioinformatics and ELSI strategies transform education for underrepresented minorities in the scientific community. This program will continue to be empirically evaluated and continue to serve as a model for other institutions.


Exploration of Pressure- and Field-Tuned Phenomena and Phases in Mn- and V-based Spinels

National Science Foundation Award #1464090
S. Lance Cooper
DMR Division of Materials Research
MPS Directorate for Mathematical & Physical Sciences

Project Dates: September 1, 2015–August 31, 2018 (Estimated)

"Magnetically responsive" materials have magnetic and conducting properties that can be sensitively tuned with pressure and magnetic field, and exhibit a range of scientifically interesting and technologically useful properties, including coexisting magnetic and electric orders, magnetic-field-induced shape and conductivity changes, and strain controlled magnetism. Understanding the physical mechanisms responsible for these exotic properties is not only important scientifically, but is an essential prerequisite to optimizing these materials for use in technological applications. This project combines the use of high pressures, high magnetic fields, and visible laser light to identify and control the underlying mechanisms responsible for magnetically responsive behavior in a select group of magnetically responsive materials. Among the goals of this project are to identify the key physical mechanisms that give rise to magnetically responsive behavior, to control these mechanisms in order to create novel properties of scientific and technological interest, and to investigate as-yet-unexplored phase regions to uncover new, and potentially useful, physical properties. The diverse techniques employed in this research - including high-pressure techniques using diamond anvil cell technology, high-magnetic-field and low-temperature methods, optical and laser techniques, and materials growth methods - provide the graduate and undergraduate student researchers outstanding training for a diverse range of careers in academia, industry, or national laboratories. This project is also dedicated to imparting scientific literacy and enthusiasm for science in both the general public and K-12 students, through public lectures on science, middle-school scientific demonstrations, and lab tours that highlight the excitement of the materials studied and the scientific techniques used in this project.


Fundamental Study on Sustainable Alternative Binders for Concrete: Reduction of Long-Term Time Dependent Deformation through Nanoengineering

National Science Foundation Award #1538432
Paramita Mondal
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Project Dates: September 1, 2015–August 31, 2018 (Estimated)

Concrete is second only to water as the most used material by humans. Its use continues to grow to build new structures as well as to meet an increasing need for repair of existing structures. The projected use of ordinary Portland cement, the main component responsible for binding capacity of concrete, in 2020 is to be three times the level of 1990. As every ton of ordinary Portland cement is known to produce 0.8 tons of carbon dioxide, reduction of cement consumption by use of supplementary cementitious materials is extremely important to reduce greenhouse gas emission associated with construction industry. However, supplementary cementitious materials can be slow to react and greater use of such materials in concrete requires external activation. External activation of supplementary cementitious materials can produce binders with similar to superior mechanical properties and have been used in actual construction. However, there are still many factors, including their high early age deformation due to moisture loss and limited understanding of long-term time dependent deformation, that affect their wider use. This proposal, for the first time, will study processing of such sustainable alternative binders and its relationship with time-dependent deformation to ultimately control it. The proposed work plan also aims to a) advance the integration of research and education through training civil engineering graduate students in materials science, b) encourage study of sustainable infrastructure materials among undergraduates through middle school students and c) increase participation of women and underrepresented students in research.

The research objective of this proposal is to provide fundamental understanding of how the reaction mechanisms, and the molecular and nano structural arrangements of the reaction products in alkali activated sustainable alternative binders made from supplementary cementitious materials, are related to the time dependent deformation of the binder. This proposal hypothesizes that the abovementioned factors can be controlled through the addition of nanocrystalline seeding agents. In this project, the effects of the addition of nanocrystalline seeding agents on the reaction mechanism of alkali activated binders will be studied through the use of high resolution electron microscopy and X-ray scattering. Precise information on the growth mechanism will be transformative as it will permit modification and possibly improvement of predicting capability of existing models for reaction kinetics of such binders. Fundamental understanding achieved through this proposal will be equally important for improving resistance of alkali activated binders against leaching, efflorescence and other chemical degradations as they also depend on the molecular and nanostructure of the binder.


MRSEC: Illinois Materials Research Center

National Science Foundation Award #1720633
Nadya Mason
Physics
Project Dates: September 1, 2017–August 31, 2023 (Estimated)

The mission of the Illinois Materials Research Science and Engineering Center is to perform fundamental, innovative materials research that has applications to societal needs, while supporting interdisciplinary education and training of students in materials design, understanding, and application. The scientific research comprises two highly interdisciplinary groups. The first group aims to revolutionize our ability to store and process information, via a new type of control of magnetism in materials known as anti-ferromagnets. In particular, the research focuses on controlling the behavior of these unconventional materials, which overcome the fundamental size and switching time limits of conventional magnetic memory storage such as currently used in computer disk drives. The second research group focuses on designing electronic materials that can withstand large deformations, such as bending and crumpling. Results of this research will enable many new applications, including wearable electronics and devices integrated with biological tissues, which require electronic materials that can be reversibly bent without degrading. The research activities of the Center are tightly integrated with education, outreach, and collaborative activities. Activities focused on science communication are designed to create a cadre of effective science communicators and enable the public to better assess and appreciate scientific results. Workshops and internships foster enhanced connections between academia, industry, and national labs. Advanced training for a diverse group of undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers produces well-trained scientists who can push the boundaries of materials research in industry and academia, and increases the pipeline for the future scientific workforce.


National Center for Professional and Research Ethics

National Science Foundation Award: Press release
Nicholas Burbules; Michael Loui; William Mischo
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Coordinated Science Laboratory
Education
University of Illinois Library

This online center, called the National Center for Professional and Research Ethics, will develop, gather, preserve and provide comprehensive access to resources related to ethics for teachers, students, researchers, administrators and other audiences. As such, it will provide information and expertise for instructors who teach ethics, students with questions about research integrity, researchers and engineers who encounter ethical challenges in practice, administrators in universities and businesses who oversee ethics and compliance policies, scholars who conduct research on professional and research ethics, and others with questions or interests in these areas.


A New Integrated Approach to Undergraduate Course Instruction

Howard Hughes Medical Institute Award
Yi Lu
Chemistry

Dr. Lu proposes developing a new integrated, inquiry-based course involving all levels of undergraduate students, from freshmen to seniors, with the theme of the role of chemistry in life and society. The course will help recruit, motivate, and retain minority students as science majors. The course will be a single class that spans the four-year undergraduate education; students may take up to one semester per year. First-time students will attend lectures as well as presentations by other students. They will also choose an open-ended topic to research. The second time students take the course, they will give a literature seminar on their chosen topic. The third time, they will give a proposal seminar on how they will investigate their topic and resolve problems. The fourth time, they will give a seminar to report the results of their investigations.

Students at all levels who have similar topics will be put into groups to work together; seniors will be expected to act as mentors to the more junior students. In addition, each group will be assigned a more senior mentor, such as the instructor, a teaching fellow, a graduate teaching assistant, or a research assistant. The goal of the course is to interest students who may not otherwise choose science courses or a science major. In addition, to recruit minority students from other universities, the course will be offered in the summers and fellowships will be provided to defer expenses.


Novel Methods to Assess the Effects of Chemicals on Child Development

National Institutes of Health Award #1P01ES022848-01
Susan L. Schantz
College of Veterinary Medicine
Dates: June 15, 2013–May 31, 2018 (Estimated)

The primary goals of this Children's Center are to use a multidisciplinary approach to address critical gaps in our knowledge about the impact of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (phthalates/BPA) on child development, to actively involve junior investigators in this research effort, and to actively communicate our research findings to parents, childcare providers and healthcare providers. There are three common themes that unite the three research projects and the Outreach and Translation Core (COTC) of this Center: (1) assessment of exposures during two critical developmental windows (prenatal and adolescent), (2) investigation of joint effects of phthalate/BPA exposure and a high fat diet/obesity, and (3) investigation of the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in mediating effects. At the heart of the research effort will be two human cohorts (Project 1)-a prospective pre-birth cohort currently in progress in Urbana, Illinois and an adolescent cohort to be assessed as part of a long-standing prospective study in New Bedford, Massachusetts. The Center will also include laboratory animal projects (Projects 2 and 3) which will model the timing of exposures in these human cohorts, a COTC, and this administrative core which will provide oversight, coordination and integration of all Center-related activities. The responsibilities of the Administrative Core will include organizing and scheduling monthly meetings of the Internal Advisory Committee and monthly research team meetings of the Center investigators, organizing yearly meetings of the Center scientists with the six-member External Advisory Committee, coordinating the career development activities of the Center, and facilitating interactions of the Pediatric Health Specialist with the COTC to communicate research findings to the healthcare community. As Director and Associate Director of the Children's Center, Drs. Susan Schantz and Jodi Flaws will be responsible for conducting Internal and External Advisory Committee meetings and regularly evaluating the research progress of each of the projects, as well as the outreach activities of the COTC. They will also be responsible for general fiscal oversight of the Center. Dr. Flaws will have full authority to make decisions in Dr. Schantz's absence. Relevance: Phthalates and BPA are endocrine disrupting chemicals that are found in many consumer products. Exposure is widespread, but the impact of this exposure on child health and development is not well-understood. This Center's research will fill an important gap in our knowledge by investigating the effects of these chemicals, both alone and combination with a high fat diet on reproductive and neural development.


PIRE: Integrated Computational Materials Engineering for Active Materials and Interfaces in Chemical Fuel Production

National Science Foundation Award #1659702
Narayana R Aluru
Mechanical Science and Engineering
Project Dates: October 1, 2015-September 30, 2020 (Estimated)

A major challenge before renewable energy technologies can be implemented at global scales is to find a way to store the energy produced by intermittent sources such as the wind and the sun. Existing technologies fail to meet the energy storage demand and novel solutions are needed. An attractive technology that can potentially meet the growing demand is solid oxide electrolysis, where electrical energy produced by renewables is converted into chemical energy and stored for later use. Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are complex, integrated material systems that use electrical energy as input to catalyze chemical reactions that produce chemical fuels. However, at present SOECs last for only a few hundreds of hours primarily because of degradation and failure at interfaces and in the bulk. In this project, an international partnership, comprising the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of California at Berkeley, and Northwestern University in the U.S. and Kyushu University in Japan, has been formed to demonstrate an integrated approach to enabling SOEC technology. This PIRE award uniquely combines the world-class experimental resources and expertise at KU with the complimentary experimental expertise at UCB and NU, and the world-class computational facilities and expertise at Illinois to solve the energy storage grand challenge. This project will have a lasting institutional impact, including long-term synergistic collaborations between U.S. and Japan; extensive research and training for students and early career investigators in cutting-edge interdisciplinary topics in an international collaborative context, and outreach to K-12 teachers, science museums and summer camps. The integrated PIRE project will advance research in a number of disciplinary areas, including materials, physics, chemistry, engineering and computational science, and create a global citizenry to power the future.

This project will develop an integrated computational and experimental approach to design efficient, reliable, low temperature, extended lifetime SOECs. The novel aspects of the proposal are: 1) Computational and experimental design of novel proton and oxygen-ion conducting electrolytes. This effort will involve the design and development of proton conducting oxides with sufficient stability, operating temperature of 600?aC or lower, higher energy efficiencies at acceptable current density and high proton conductivity. 2) Computational and experimental design of novel electrodes focusing on chemistry and microstructure. This effort will involve the design and development of high-activity electrodes based on microstructure optimization and materials activity. In addition, a detailed understanding of new electrodes such as the Ruddlesden-Popper structures and ordered perovskites will be developed. 3) Computational models and experimental validation of degradation modes in SOECs. This will involve the development of a comprehensive understanding of degradation modes at electrolyte/electrode interfaces focusing on relationships between temperature and applied potential to cation segregation, bubble formation, delamination and fracture. The computational effort is strongly tied with the experimental effort and all computational predictions will be validated with experiments. Undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral researchers will be engaged in a rich US-Japan exchange program and their PIRE research and education experience will prepare them for challenging positions in the global workplace. Outreach activities will focus on K-12 engagement, teacher training, disseminating knowledge via science museums, and summer camps.

This award is cofunded by the Division of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure, Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering.


Professional Science Masters Program

Sloan Foundation
Bryan White, Hans Blaschek, Nicki Engeseth
Agricultural, Consumer and Economic Sciences

The Illinois Professional Science Master's (PSM) is a non-thesis graduate program that offers an MS degree, allowing students to pursue advanced training in science or mathematics while simultaneously learning critical business skills through an integration of four key curriculum components: science or mathematics courses, "plus" business courses, industry seminar, and internship. Program options include Agricultural Production, Bioenergy, or Food Science and Human Nutrition.


REU Site: INCLUSION - Incubating a New Community of Leaders Using Software, Inclusion, Innovation, Interdisciplinary and OpeN-Science

National Science Foundation Award #1659702
Daniel S. Katz ,Olena Kindratenko
Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Center for Supercomputing Applications
Project Dates: March 1, 2017-February 29, 2020 (Estimated)

Research laboratories are no longer rooms full of test tubes or microscopes; computers have taken center stage and research across all fields is becoming increasingly digital. This research, including modeling, simulation, data collection, and data analysis is dependent on software, some of which is written or adopted from existing code. However, this software is mostly developed and used by researchers who are not trained in software development, leading to software that is functional but not well-structured, well-documented, robust, or reusable. To promote the progress of science, the Incubating a New Community of Leaders Using Software, Inclusion, Innovation, Interdisciplinary and Open Science (INCLUSION) project immerses a highly motivated and diverse cohort of students in a guided research process that enables them to experience the thrill of discovery and to adopt the role of scientists as one which is authentically theirs. It aims to inspire students to pursue research careers using open source software and equips them with the skills and knowledge to prepare them for graduate school and employment opportunities, where they will help advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare, and secure the national defense. INCLUSION trains pairs of students in software skills leveraging and building upon state-of-art lessons. The students work with pairs of mentors on interdisciplinary socially-impactful research projects that develop and use open source software across a wide variety of STEM fields. Their work can lead to research advances and the project contributes open source tools to the larger scientific community, leading to additional advances. By doing so, INCLUSION provides interdisciplinary training for undergraduate researchers, facilitates students' professional growth, and prepares them for the STEM workplace, increasing diversity in the STEM pipeline through engagement in research.

INCLUSION is a 10-week summer program comprising general software-in-research training and focused research projects. Its goals are to: 1) Stimulate enrollment in graduate studies of a diverse student body through involvement of pairs of students in scientific investigation under the mentorship of at least two University of Illinois faculty members from different disciplines; 2) Develop students' ability to apply open source software (OSS) technologies to real-world problems; 3) Promote collaborative ties between the student's institution and University of Illinois faculty, staff and students and provide a basis for future collaborative studies; 4) Develop well documented and tested software for the science and engineering research community; and 5) Build intercultural competences that make minority and underrepresented students competitive in the global marketplace. INCLUSION students are undergraduates from underrepresented groups from all types of institutions, focused on Minority Serving Institutions. Mentors develop skills for creating both formal and informal mentoring relationships. The students participate in research and professional development activities that are designed to achieve the goal of retaining and graduating undergraduate students in science and engineering who might not have similar opportunities for research experiences at their own institutions. Challenging research problems prompt students' guided development of research skills: investigation, presentation, and publication: one-on-one introductions by mentors transition to student-led talks and culminate with publications and conference experiences during or after the summer.


Scaling Cultures of Collaboration: Evidence-based Reform in Portal STEM Courses

National Science Foundation Award #1347722
Jose Mestre ,Jonathan Tomkin , Jennifer Greene , Matthew West, Geoffrey Herman
Physics, Geology, College of Education, College of Education, Mechanical Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering
Project Dates: January 1, 2014-December 31, 2017 (Estimated)

This project is using transformational learning theory and an Immunity-to-Change model as justification for forming Communities of Practice (CoPs) to change the teaching culture in gateway STEM courses at the University of Illinois. The Immunity to Change model focuses on the discomfort caused by the many teaching reforms that take the instructor out of the role of routinely providing expertise to the students as the dominant form of interaction with them. When the same instructors are working in or representing their research, it is important to present themselves in ways that demonstrate their expertise. This dissonance is a barrier to changing the teaching practices of research-active faculty in many instances because the teaching practices require them to take on the role of facilitator rather than expert

Hence, this project is based on the core idea that teaching in gateway courses should be jointly owned and created by the faculty, rather than being the sole province of individual, independent instructors. This process is being initiated through the formation of Communities of Practice (CoPs) around each undergraduate STEM discipline in ten departments, which are located in two colleges - Liberal Arts and Sciences and the College of Engineering. Through the CoP process, the teaching culture is changing, as faculty are adapting evidenced-based reforms and changing their instruction in gateway courses. These gateway courses in ten departments in two colleges enroll over 17,000 students annually, and several of the gateway courses are required for nearly all STEM majors on campus. The Community of Practice approach is operating both within each department and also at the aggregate level across all ten departments. Each CoP is collaboratively exploring a domain of knowledge to support the development of improved practice by connecting faculty who need to adapt their teaching to evidence-based pedagogies with faculty whose beliefs already support those pedagogies.

CoPs are providing an organizational structure that promotes long-term situated learning that is exposing and challenging instructors' tacit beliefs that impede change. CoPs also depend on high levels of collaboration for success and effectively spread tacit knowledge, which decreases the learning curve for novices, reduces creation of redundant resources or reenactments of failures, and promotes creativity. The emphasis on CoPs will further engender common ownership of the reforms, countering the current individualistic teaching culture, thereby institutionalizing the reforms so that they are used in the gateway courses as new faculty are assigned to teach them.

CoPs are engaging in a development cycle of innovate to evaluate, facilitated by a large evaluation team and an instructional support team. The evaluation team is providing both formative and summative feedback to CoPs using both qualitative (e.g., student attitudes) and quantitative (e.g., performance outcomes) measures that are in turn being used to improve teaching and learning. In addition, the evaluation team is also studying the functioning of the CoPs, including the extent to which teams are operating as CoPs, and providing detailed descriptions of features of effective and less effective CoPs. The instructional support team is providing just-in-time training to the CoPs by attending their weekly meetings and organizing monthly gatherings for all CoPs. The remaining PIs are working to maintain the top-down administrative support from deans and department heads to sustain the bottom-up reform efforts of the CoPs.


Sustained-Petascale In Action: Blue Waters Enabling Transformative Science And Engineering

National Science Foundation Award #1238993
William Kramer, William Gropp, Cristina Beldica
National Center for Supercomputing Application, Computer Science
Project Dates: October 1, 2013 – July 31,2019 (Estimated)

This a renewal award to the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) to operate Blue Waters, which is a leadership class compute, network, and storage system, that will deliver unprecedented large scale and highly usable computing capabilities to the national research community. Blue Waters provides the capability for researchers to tackle much larger and more complex research challenges across a wide spectrum of domain than can be done now, and opens up entirely new possibilities and frontiers in science and engineering. This system is located at the newly constructed National Petascale Computing Facility at UIUC.

This award enables investigators across the country to conduct innovative research in a number of areas including: using three-dimensional, compressible, finite difference, magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) codes to understand how internal solar magneto convection powers the Sun's activity, and how that activity heats the chromosphere and corona and accelerates charged particles to relativistic energies; applying adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technologies to study flows of partially ionized plasma in the outer heliosphere; implementing multiscale methods to study protein induced membrane remodeling key steps of the HIV viral replication cycle and clathrin coated pit formation in endocytosis; testing of the hypothesis that transport fluxes and other effects associated with cloud processes and ocean mesoscale eddy mixing are significantly different from the theoretically derived averages embodied in the parameterizations used in current-generation climate models; and, exploring systems-of-systems engineering design challenges to discover optimal many-objective satellite constellation design tradeoffs that include Earth science applications. Large allocations of resources on the new system have been awarded to scientists and engineers by NSF through a separate peer-reviewed competition. .

The Blue Waters system and project are aligned with NSF's Advanced Computing Infrastructure Strategy to promote next generation computational and data intensive applications. These applications are being developed by multiple teams of researchers who will revolutionize and transform our knowledge of science and engineering across many disciplines. The system supports new modalities of computation, new programming models, enhanced system software, accelerator technologies and novel storage. The robust design and configuration of Blue Waters ensures that it will meet the evolving needs of the diverse science and engineering communities over the full lifetime of the system. The broader impacts of this award include: provisioning unique infrastructure for research and education; accelerating education and training in the use of advanced computational science; training new users on how to use petascale computing techniques; promoting an exchange of information between academia and industry about the petascale applications; and broadening participation and collaborations in computational science with other research institutions and projects nationally and internationally.


The Computational Microscope

National Science Foundation Award #1440026
Klaus Schulten
Theoretical and Computational Biophysics
Dates: September 1, 2014–August 31, 2017 (Estimated)

Cells are the building blocks of life, yet they are themselves a collection of proteins, small molecules, and solvent, none of which are, in and of themselves, alive. How living things can arise from the "behavior" of molecules, which are simply obeying the laws of physics, is the essential conundrum of modern biology. The rise of scientific supercomputing has offered the chance to study living systems at the levels of atoms, cells, and all levels in between. With Blue Waters, it is now possible to take the most critical step from inanimate to animate matter by describing assembly and cooperation of thousands of macromolecules made of billions of atoms. The ability to explore living systems via the "computational microscope" of molecular dynamics simulations has a profound impact not only on the progress of basic science, but also in the treatment of disease and the development of drugs. This project will use Blue Waters to study three types of biomolecular systems: the microtubules that make up the cell's cytoskeleton, the chemosensory array that acts as a "bacterial brain", and two highly relevant retroviruses: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and RSV (Rous sarcoma virus). The first project will model microtubules, in their native form, as well as the interactions between the microtubule, its regulatory partners, and anti-cancer agents. Simulations of the microtubule and its interactions with drugs can help drive the development of new microtubule-attacking cancer therapies. The HIV part of the virus project builds on prior success in modeling the full HIV capsid to evaluate the effects of HIV drugs on capsid stability and to model the essential interactions between the capsid and host cell factors. Simulations of the HIV capsid provide the necessary detailed knowledge of the vital infection process to develop new HIV therapies. The RSV part of the virus project has constructed the first model of an intermediate stage in virus capsid maturation, which will be used to describe the maturation process of retroviruses may open the doors to a new type of anti-viral drug which attacks that maturation process. The chemosensory array project seeks to answer how input from many chemical sensors on the bacterial surface are transduced across hundreds of nanometers in the array, leading the cell to decide if it should continue swimming or change direction, to adapt to changing environments. The chemosensory array is a universal structure in bacteria, but absent in eukaryotes, offering a new target for antibiotic drugs - a desperately needed advancement in combating bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. Each of the projects proposed presents an opportunity for petascale computing to contribute to mankind?s health and to answer one of mankind's oldest questions: "What is life?"


The Double Bind of Race and Gender: A Look into the Experiences of Women of Color in Engineering

National Science Foundation Award # 1648454
Jennifer Amos , Kathryn Clancy, Princess Imoukhuede, Ruby Mendenhall, Kelly Cross
Project Dates: September 1, 2016–August 31, 2019 (Estimated)

This project addresses three major project interests of National Science Foundation's Broadening Participation of Engineering program: (a) analyzing and understanding the problem of poorly sustained participation in engineering across underrepresented demographic groups; (b) identifying structural inequalities and biases within educational and workforce systems that may influence engineering persistence; and (c) examining insufficient access to support systems and social networks that raise career awareness about different engineering pathways among underrepresented groups. More importantly, the project has the ability to provide the foundational data to evaluate the cumulative effects of women of color's double bind experience of race and gender in engineering and provide meaningful evidence of how disadvantage accrues over time. Further, the new knowledge generated from this project possess great potential in providing directions to engineering faculty and practitioners on how best to promote diversity and inclusion in engineering, where both diversity and inclusion remain a persistent challenge.

Using intersectionality as the guiding theoretical framework, the project focuses on improving the engineering interests and experiences of women of color for the purpose of broadening participation. A predominantly qualitative research methodology is being used to pinpoint the obstacles that women of color have to overcome in engineering. The investigators are using the data to develop a framework and model that women of color can use to overcome challenges that they might face in engineering and other STEM disciplines.


University of Illinois Mathematics GAANN Fellowship Project

US Department of Education Award #P200A090062
Karen Mortensen, Randy McCarthy
Mathematics


Vertically Integrated Training With Genomics (VInTG) IGERT

National Science Foundation Award #1069157
Andrew Suarez, Gene Robinson, William McMillan, Carla Caceres, Sandra Rodriguez-Zas
Institute for Genomic Biology, School of Integrative Biology

Project Dates: September 1, 2011–August 31, 2018 (Estimated)

Vertically Integrated Training With Genomics (VInTG) will provide support for as many as 30 graduate students over the next five years. Students will learn ways to both ask and answer the big research questions of the coming decades, says principal investigator Andrew Suarez, associate professor of Animal Biology and Entomology and IGB affiliate.

VInTG will address two "grand challenges" in biology: How do genomes interact with the environment to produce biological diversity? and How are biological systems integrated from molecules to ecosystems? Answering these questions will help both science and society determine how to maintain food security under climate change; how to integrate genetics and ecology to study emerging infectious diseases; and how organisms' responses to climate change influence biodiversity and ecosystem function.